Quellen zur Königsberger Universitätsgeschichte in der Frühen Neuzeit (16.-18. Jahrhundert)

Stefan Hartmann


The present contribution is devoted to the 450th anniversary of the Albertina in Königsberg which is celebrated in 1994. It is based on tili now largely unknown sources from the Preußisches Generaldirektorium (Prussian General Directory) and the Repositur 7 "Prussia", which have been transferred from Merseburg to Berlin last year and
belong to the fund of the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Secret States Archives of Prussian Cultural Possession). The contribution presents important sources of Königsberg university history in chronological order without laying claim to completeness. Points of emphasis are the Privileges given to the alma mater by its founder Duke Albrecht, the staff and social structures of the professorate and the Student body, the content of research and teaching as well as the economic and financial structure of the university, which was insufficient in the whole period of Early Modern Times and gave cause to countless Claims. Many internal affairs like the quarrels among the Professors, the students' excesses, questions of rank and competence, the influence of religious arguments, f. e. between Orthodox Lutherans and Pietists, and applications for better remuneration are dealt with in these sources. The government of the Soldier King Frederick William I is documented in detail, which made the Albertina fall into decay especially because of the violent recruitment among the students. Documented are also the reformatory measures of this king who prescribed the professors to give regular lectures and was concerned about the alumnat and the convictorium (special forms of theological seminaries).
The largest part of these observations deals with the time of Frederick the Great who endeavoured after the Seven Years' War to restore the Status of the university from the time before 1756 and gained active Support by the Great Chancellor von Fürst and the Budget Minister von Korff. Especially emphasized are the sources concerning the most famous representative of the Albertina, Immanuel Kant, f. e. his application for a vacant professor's chair, his appointment as a professor for logic and metaphysics, and the announcement of his lectures. From the sources follows that - leaving Kant out of consideration - teaching took place mostly in the traditional form under the reign of Frederick the Great. To mention is that at that time - like in former times - most students came from East Prussia. Students from abroad came mostly from Lithuania and Courland. The time from Frederick's II death till the beginning of the 19th Century is dealt with in a final chapter.